Galina Petrova Imperial Orchestra in the First Third of the 19th Century: Reform of Cavos
The article reconstructs the history of the Imperial orchestra in St. Petersburg of the first third of the 19th century on the basis of archival documents first introduced into the scientific area. It is shown that unlike the model of the Court Orchestra, which existed in the era of Catherine the Great, the institution of orchestra of the beginning of the 19th century relied on several subdivisions. The orchestra structure increasingly depended on the operation of opera companies. A bright illustration is the history of the Italian company orchestra of 1828 and the reform of the orchestra, which followed in connection with its dismissal by the Directorate of Imperial Theatres in 1831. The reform was carried out by the director of orchestras Catterino Cavos, better known as a composer, inspector of the Theatre School, Kapellmeister of the Russian Opera. The author also clarifies the significance of some important terms related to the institution of the orchestra of the period under consideration.
Keywords: orchestra, Catterino Cavos, Italian company, opera, musician, theatre directorate, director of music, document, states, reform.
- Olga Skorbyashchenskaya Henselt, Balakirev, and Stasov. Fathers & Sons
The subject of the article is the creative dialogue between the representatives of two generations of Russian pianists of the 19th century: Adolf Henselt and Miliy Balakirev, who symbolized the roles of the fathers and the sons of the Russian piano school of the 1840s and the 1860s. The role of Vladimir Stasov who initiated their acquaintance and creative cooperation, is also being considered. The documentary base of the article includes Henselt’s letters to Stasov and Balakirev, and Balakirev’s letters to Stasov kept in the collections of the Manuscript Departments of the St. Petersburg Rimsky-Korsakov State Conservatory and the National Library of Russia, as well as the periodicals materials of the 1860s–1880s.
Keywords: Miliy Balakirev, Vladimir Stasov, Adolph Henselt, Russian piano school of the second half of the 19th century.
- Konstantin Filimonov Chronology of the Music Courses of Eugene Rap-hoph (on the History of the St. Petersburg Rimsky- Korsakov Music College)
The article outlines the main stages in the formation of the Eugene Rap-hoph Music Courses in St. Petersburg, one of the largest private music educational institutions in prerevolutionary Russia. Specifics of the development are identified and the starting date of the Courses is specified. The significance of the Courses’ status (“level rate system”) and measure of success are determined. Some aspects of the institution’s professional functioning are highlighted. The Rap-hoph Courses served as an organizational and methodological basis for the emergence of the St. Petersburg Rimsky-Korsakov Music College.
Keywords: Eugene Rap-hoph, Hippolit Rap-hoph, “level rate system” in musical education, Music Courses of Rap-hoph, St. Petersburg Rimsky-Korsakov Music College.
- Maria Kozak A New Diatonic Modal Principle of Relative Music of Monfred: Origin and Stages of Formation
Avenir H. de Monfred (1903–1974) is a composer, pianist, organist, and theorist. Due to circumstances connected with his emigration from Russia to France and the USA, he became the bearer of several musical-theoretical traditions. The article pays attention to the events that determined the origins and stages of the formation of a new diatonic modal principle of relative music, namely, his studying in Petrograd and Paris with two famous teachers — А. К. Glazunov and V. d’Andy. The first theoretical understanding of the NDM principle in the form of an article dates back to 1951, being changed in his further works. The purpose of the present publication is to follow the stages of the formation of the NDM principle, to correlate their result in theory with the composing practice.
Keywords: Avenir H. de Monfred, new diatonic principle of relative music (the NDM principle), Alexander К. Glazunov, Vincent d’ Indy, Joseph Yasser, publisher EMCA, theory of relativity
- Galina Abdullina To the Issue of the Genre Evolution: Passacaglia in the Works of Russian Composers of the Second Half of the 20th Century
The article considers the instrumental works by Russian composers of the second half of the 20th — beginning of the 21st century, written in the genres of passacaglia and chaconne. The evolution of the musical language at the end of the 20th century has been reflected in their emotional contents, musical material and shaping, which is manifested in a new type of its themes, the ways of its development and the combination of classic structures with new elements of modern composer thinking. Traditional genres, in which form becomes heavily dependent on dramaturgy and writing techniques undergo significant changes.
Keywords: passacaglia, chaconne, evolution, traditions, multiplication.
- Irina Grigorieva Bayan in the Works of Contemporary St. Petersburg Composers
The article is devoted to the overview of bayan works by contemporary St. Petersburg composers: Alexander Radvilovich, Mikhail Krutik, Sofiia Levkovskaya, Ilya Ostromogilsky, Evgeny Petrov, Gennadiy Banshchikov, Vladimir Rannev, Boris Filanovsky, Sergey Hismatov. The author considers the subjects and artistic images of the bayan music pieces. The way of interpretation of musical instruments in ensemble with bayan is explored as a kind of an instrumental theatre. The performing techniques used by the composers for bayan are described.
Keywords: modern composers of St. Petersburg, Mikhail S. Krutik, Sofiia S. Levkovskaya, Ilya V. Ostromogilsky, Evgeny V. Petrov, Alexander Yu. Radvilovich, Gennadiy I. Banshchikov, Vladimir V. Rannev, Boris D. Filanovsky, Sergey M. Khismatov, bayan music of the 21st century, instrumental theatre, word in music, clusters.
- Damir Urazymbetov Mintai Tleubayev at the Leningrad Conservatory
Mintai Tleubayev (1947–2009) is an outstanding figure in the choreographic art of Kazakhstan. He studied choreography art at the Leningrad Rimsky-Korsakov State Conservatory from great masters, who had a strong influence on the personality of the young choreographer. In the article, the unknown archival documents concerning the years of study and work of Tleubayev at the Leningrad conservatory are presented for the first time. In this publication, the author has collected and analysed the rare materials on the Ravel’s “Bolero” production staged by Tleubayev at the Opera Studio of the Leningrad conservatory.
Keywords: Mintai Tleubayev, Leningrad conservatory, Georgy Aleksidze, “Bolero” by M. Ravel, Opera Studio of the Leningrad conservatory, choreographer, Kazakh ballet.
- Anastasia Logunova Gioachino Rossini’s Autographs at the Russian State Historical Archive
This paper presents autographs by G. Rossini housed at the Russian State Historical Archive. These new documents published embrace the period from 1834 to 1858 and not only disclose new episodes in the history of Rossini’s contacts in Russia, but also contain poorly explored facts concerning the composer’s biography and his connections with the figures of Italian culture.
Keywords: Gioachino Rossini, Ivan M. Tolstoy, Federico Pescantini, Amalia Ferraris, Carl O. (Charles Andre) Pozzo di Borgo.
- Liudmila Kovnatskaya To Live Shostakovich’s Life Once Again
In the review published, the monograph by L. O. Hakobian (Hakobian, Levon. The Phenomenon of Dmitry Shostakovich. St. Petersburg, 2018. In Russian) is considered to be a brilliant example of the phenomenological research which, combined with methods of properly musicological analysis, allows the reader to re-experience the life and music of the ingenious composer from the earliest to the latest works in the sociocultural contexts of the changing world.
Keywords: Dmitry D. Shostakovich, Levon O. Hakobian, phenomenology, analytical system, «St. Petersburg text».